Print this Page

Published Research

We have a library of literally hundreds of published articles on various aspects of pregnancy and pregnancy loss.   Every new article we find gets ordered from the library and placed into our very large set of notebooks!  The ones listed below are those that we have found to be our favorites and we have sorted them acccording to the general topic discussed. 

We are always happy to share anything we have on the list below or in our personal library.  Just send us a note to



  • Smith, G.C.S., & Fretts, R.C.  StillbirthThe Lancet.  2007; 370: 1715-1725.
  • Fretts, R.C. Etiology and prevention of stillbirthAmerican Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005; 193: 1923-1935. 
  • Spong, C.Y., ed.  Stillbirth: Prediction, Prevention, and Management.  2011.  Wiley-Blackwell; New Jersey.
  • Smith, G. C., Predicting antepartum stillbirth. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 53(3): 597-606.
  • ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins – Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin: Management of stillbirth. 2009; 102.
  • Seaton, S.E., Field, D.J., Draper, E.S., Manktelow, B.N., Smith, G.C.S, Springett, A., & Smith, L.K.. Socioeconomic inequalities in the rate of stillbirths by cause: a population-based study.  BMJ Open; 2012. Doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001100.
  • Flenady, V., Koopmans, L., Middleton, P., Froen, J.F., Smith, G.C., Gibbons, K., Coory, M., Gordon, A., Ellwood, D., McIntyre, H.D., Fretts, R., & Ezzati, M. Major risk factors for stillbirth in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Lancet. 2011; 377: 1331-1340.
  • Pasupathy, D., & Smith, G.C.S. The analysis of factors predicting antepartum stillbirth. Minerva Ginecologica. 2005; 57: 397-410.
  • Paneth, N.  Stillbirth: Still important and still a puzzle. Epidemiology. 2012; 23(2): 255-256.
  • Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and the SMFM Foundation.  Maternal Fetal Medicine: High-Risk Pregnancy Care, Research, and Education for Over 35 Years.  2010.  Obtained online:
  • Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network Writing Group.  (2011). Causes of death among stillbirths.  JAMA.  2011; 306(22): 2459-2468.
  • Fretts, R. (2010). Stillbirth epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for stillbirth prevention. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology; 53(3): 588-596.
  • Mitchell, E.A., & Heazell, A. (Eds.). (2012).  Proceedings of the Stillbirth Summit 2011. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth; 12 (Suppl 1): A14.
  • ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins – Obstetrics.  Antepartum Fetal Surveillance.  1999; 9. 


  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Green-top Guideline 57: Reduced fetal movements. 2011.
  • Froen, J.F., Heazell, A.E.P., Tveit, J.V.H., Saastad, E., Fretts, R.C., & Flenady, V. Fetal movement assessment. Semin Perinatol. 2008; 32: 243-246.
  • Froen, J.F., Tvelt, J.V.H., Saastad, E., Bordahl, P.E., Stray-Pedersen, B., Heazell, A.E.P., Flenady, V., & Fretts, R.C. Management of decreased fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology. 2008; 32: 307-311.
  • Efkarpidis, S., Alexopoulos, E., Kean, L., Liu, D., & Fay, T. Case-control study of factors associated with intrauterine fetal deaths. MedGenMed. 2004; 6(2): 53.
  • Liston, R.M., Bloom, K., & Zimmer, P.  The psychological effects of counting fetal movements. BIRTH 1994; 21 (3): 135-140.
  • Warrander, L.K., Batra, G., Bernatavicius, G., Greenwood, S.L., Dutton, P., Jones, R.L., Sibley, C.P., and Heazell, A.E.P. Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements in associated with altered placental structure and functionPLoS One. 2012; 7(4): e34851.
  • Peat, A.M., Stacey, T., Cronin, R., & McCowan, L.M.E. Maternal knowledge of fetal movements in late pregnany.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828x.2012.01462.x.
  • Saastad, E., Winje, B.A., Israel, P., & Froen, F.  Fetal movement counting-maternal concern and experiences: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trialBirth, 2012; 39:1. 



  • Hayes, E.K., Lechowicz, A., Petrik, J.J., Storozhuk, Y., Paez-Parent, S., Dai, Q., Samjoo, I.A., Mansell, M., Gruslin, A., Holloway, A.C., & Raha, S. Adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes associated with a life-long high fat diet: Role of altered development of the placental vasculature. 2012. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33370. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033370.
  • Stacey, T., Thompson, J.M.D., Mitchell, E.A., Ekeroma, A.J., Zuccollo, J.M., & McCowan, L.M.E.  Relationship between obesity, ethnicity, and risk of late stillbirth; a case control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011; published online. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-3.
  • Kominiarek, M.A., Vonderheid, S., & Endres, L.K.  Maternal obesity: do patients understand the risks?  Journal of Perinatology.  2010; 30, 452-458.


  • Bahiya, M.O., Funai, E.F., Rosenbergg, V., Norwiz, E., Lipkind, H., Buhimschi, C., & Copel, J.A. Stillbirth at term in women of advanced maternal age in the United States: When could the antenatal testing be initiated?Am J Perinatol. 2008; 25: 301-304.
  • Miller, D.A. Is advanced maternal age an independent risk factor for uteroplacental insufficiency? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2005; 192: 1974-1982.
  • Fretts, R.C., & Duru, U.A. New Indications for Antepartum testing: Making the case for antepartum surveillance or timed delivery for women of advanced maternal age. Seminars in Perinatology. 2008; 32: 312-317.
  • Cleary-Goldman, J., Malone, F.D., Vidaver, J., Ball, R.H., Nyberg, D.A., Comstock, C.H., Saade, G.R., Eddleman, K.A., Klugman, S., Dugoff, L., Timor-Tritsch, I.E., Craigo, S.D., Carr, S.R., Wolfe, H.M., Bianchi, D.W., & D’Alton, M. Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105 (5): 983-990.
  • Walker, K., Bugg, G.J., Macpherson, M., & Thornton, J. Induction of labour at term for women over 35 years old: a survey of the views of women and obstetricians. Eur J Obstet Gynecol.2012; doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.02.016.
  • Arnold, A., Beckmann, M., Flenady, V., & Gibbons, K. Term stillbirth in older womenAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2012; doi: 10. 1111/j.1479-828X.2011.01404.x
  • Jacobsson, B., Ladfors, L., & Milsom, I. Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104(4): 727-733.
  • Haavaldsen, C., Sarfraz, A., Samuelsen, S.O., & Eskild, A. The impact of maternal age on fetal death: does length of gestation matter? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 203: 554.e1-8.
  • Fretts, R.C., Elkin, E.B., Myers, E.R., & Heffner, L.J. Should older women have antepartum testing to prevent unexplained stillbirth? Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104(1): 56-64.
  • Reddy, U.M., Ko, C-W., & Willinger, M. Maternal age and the risk of stillbirth throughout pregnancy in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006; 195: 764-770.
  • Fretts, R.C. & Usher, R.H. Causes of fetal death in women of advanced maternal ageObstetrics & Gynecology.  1997; 89:40-45.


  • Stacey, T., Thompson, J.M.D., Mitchell, E.A., Ekeroma, A.J., Zuccollo, J.M., & McCowan, L.M.E. Association between maternal sleep practices and risk of late stillbirth: a case-control study. BMJ. 2011; 342: d3403.
  • Sharkey, J.T., Cable, C., & Olcese, J. Melatonin sensitizes human myometrial cells to oxytocin in a protein kinase cα/extracellular-signal regulated kinase-dependent manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(6): 2902-2908.
  • Louis, J., Auckley, D., & Bolden, N.  Management of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant womenObstetrics & Gynecology.  2012; 119(4): 864-868.


  • Saleemuddin, A., Tantbirojn, P., Sirois, K., Crum, C.P., Boyd, T.K., Tworoger, S., & Parast, M.M. Obstetric and perinatal complications in placentas with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology. 2010; 13: 459-464.
  • Azpurua, H., Funai, E.F., Coraluzzi, L.M., Doherty, L.F., Sasson, I.E., Kliman, M., & Kliman, H.J. Determination of placental weight using two-dimensional sonography and volumetric mathematic modeling.  American Journal of Perinatology. 2010; 27(2): 151-154.
  • Warland, J., McCutcheon, H., & Baghurst, P. Placental position and late stillbirth: a case-control study. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2009; 18: 1602-1606.
  • Becher, J-C., Bell, J.E., Keeling, J.W>, Liston, W.A., McIntosh, N., & Wyatt, B. The Scottish Perinatal Neuropathology Study – clinicopathological correlation in stillbirths. BJOG. 2006; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00852.x.
  • Stanek, J. Utility of diagnosing various histological patterns of diffuse chronic hypoxic placental injuryPediatric and Developmental Pathology.  2012; 15, 13-23.
  • Hutcheon, J.A., McNamara, H., Platt, R.W., Benjamin, A., & Kramer, M.S. Placental weight for gestational age and adverse perinatal outcomesObtestrics & Gynecology.  2012; 119(6): 1251-1258.
  • Kliman, H.J. Behind every healthy baby is a healthy placenta.  Online:
  • Kliman, H.J. & Segel, L.  The placenta may predict the babyJournal of Theoretical Biology.  2003; 225: 143-145.
  • Wallace, J.M., Horgan, G.W., & Bhattacharya, S.  Placental weight and efficiency in relation to maternal body mass index and the risk of pregnancy complications in women delivering singleton babiesPlacenta.  2012; 33: 611-618.


  • Warland, J. & McCutcheon, H.. Is there an association between maternal hypotension and poor pregnancy outcome? A review of contemporary literature. Australian College of Midwives Incorporated. 2002; 15(4): 22-26.
  • Hodgson, E., & Norwitz, E. Does low blood pressure increase the risk of stillbirth? Contemporary OB/GYN. 2006; Oct 55-58.



  • Resnik, R. Intrauterine growth restriction. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2002; 99(3): 490-496.
  • Bukowski, R. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 53(3): 673-680.
  • Smith, G.C.S., Shah, I., White, I.R., Pell, J.P., & Dobbie, R. Previous preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and delivery of a small for gestational age infant and the risk of unexplained stillbirth in the second pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study, Scotland, 1992-2001. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165: 194-202.
  • Froen, J.F., Gardosi, J.O., Thurmann, A., Francis, A., & Stray-Pedersen, B. Restricted fetal growth in sudden intrauterine unexplained death. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004; 83:801-807.



  • Fell, D.B., Sprague, A.E., Liu, N., Yasseen, A.S., Wen, S., Smith, G., & Walker, M.C. H1N1 Influenza vaccination during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal outcomes. American Journal of Public Health. 2012; 102(6): e33-e40.
  • Powers, R.J., Wirtschafter, D., and the Perinatal Quality Improvement Panel of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative.  Prevention of Group B Streptococcus early-onset disease: a toolkit by the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative.    Journal of Perinatalogy. 2012; 30: 77-87. 
  • McGregor, J.A., MacDonald, J., & Perhach, M.  Prenatal-onset Group B Strep (POGBS) Disease: Giving a name to Group B Strep Disease acquired before birth and four courses of action to help in its Pregnancy & Birth



  • Parast, M.M., Crum, C.P., & Boyd, T.K. Placental histologic criteria for umbilical blood flow restriction in unexplained stillbirth. Human Pathology. 2008; 39: 948-953.
  • Wilson,B. Sonography of the placenta and umbilical cord. Radiologic Technology. 2008; 79(4): 333S-345S.
  • Shinde, K.K., Bangal, V.B., Kwatra, A., & Borawake, S.K. Lessons learnt from umbilical cord accidents: are these stillbirths preventable? Int J Stud Res. 2012; 2(1): 14-17.
  • Hasegawa, J., Matsuoka, R., Ichizuka, K., Sekizawa, A., & Okai, T. Ultrasound diagnosis and management of umbilical cord abnormalities. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 48(1): 23-27.
  • Pinar, H., & Carpenter, M. Placenta and umbilical cord abnormalities seen with stillbirth. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 53(3): 656-672.
  • Collins, J.H., & Collins, C.L. The human umbilical cord. The Placenta: Basic Science and Clinical Practice. Eds. J.C.P. Kingdom, E.R.M. Jauniaux, & P.M.S. O’Brien.  RCOG Press. 
  • Bord, A., Yagel, S., & Valsky, D.V. Overburdened and undernourished. AJOG. 2007; doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.07.011.
  • Rotmensch, S., Liberati, M., Luo, J.S., Kliman, H.J., Gollin, Y., Bellati, U., Hobbins, J.C., & Copel, J.A. Color Doppler flow patterns and flow velocity waveforms of the intraplacental fetal circulation in growth-retarded fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 171 (5): 1257-1264.
  • Hasegawa, J., Mimura, T., Morimoto, T., Matsuoka, R., Ichizuka, K., Sekizawa, A., & Okai, T. Detection of umbilical venous constriction by Doppler flow measurement at midgestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 36:196-201.
  • Collins, J.H., Collins, C.L., & Collins, C.C. Umbilical cord accidents 2010. Available online:
  • Tantbirojn, P. Saleemuddin, A., Sirois, K., Crum, C.P., Boyd, T.K., Tworoger, S., & Parast, M.M.  Gross abnormalities of the umbilical cord: related placental histology and clinical significancePlacenta.  2009; 30: 1083-1088.


  • Reddy, U.M. Management of pregnancy after stillbirthClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 53(3): 700-709.
  • Sharma, P.P., Salihu, H.M., Oyelese, Y., Ananth, C.V., & Kirby, R.S. Is race a determinant of stillbirth recurrence? Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006; 107(2); 391-397.
  • Weeks, J.W. Antepartum testing for women with previous stillbirthSeminars in Perinatology. 2008; 32:301-306.
  • Harger, J.H., Archer, D.F., Marchese, S.G., Muracca-Clemens, M., & Garver, K.L. Etiology of recurrent pregnancy losses and outcome of subsequent pregnanciesObstetrics & Gynecology. 1983; 62(5):574-581.
  • Gordon, A., Raynes-Greenow, C., McGeechan, K., Morris, J., & Jeffery, H. Stillbirth risk in a second pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2012; 119(3): 509-517.
  • Spong, C.Y.  Add stillbirth to the list of outcomes to worry about in a pregnant woman with a history of preterm birth or fetal growth restrictionObstet & Gynecol.  2012; 119(3): 495-497.
  • Reddy, U.M. Prediction and prevention of recurrent stillbirth. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2007; 110(5): 1151-1164.



  • Anderson, G.M., Jacobs-Stannard, A., Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F.R., & Kliman, H.J. Placental trophoblast inclusions in austism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61: 487-491.
  • Smith, G.C.S., Wood, A.M., Pell, J.P., White, I.R., Crossley, J.A., & Dobbie, R. Second-trimester maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and the subsequent risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012; 351(10): 978-986.



  • Stock, S.J., Ferguson, E., Duffy, A., Ford, I., & Norman, J.E. Outcomes of elective induction of labour compared with expectant management: population based study. BMJ. 2012; doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2838.
  • McKenna, D., & Dornan, J. Who’s looking for the high-risk fetus in the low-risk mother? The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 2005; 7:50-51.
  • McKenna, D., Tharmaratnam, S., Mahsud, S., Bailie, C., Harper, A., & Dornan, J. A randomized trial using ultrasound to identify the high-risk fetus in a low-risk population. Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 101(4): 626-632.
  • Nicholson, J.M., Kellar, L.D., & Kellar, G.M. The impact of the interaction between increasing gestational age and obstetrical risk on birth outcomes: evidence of a varying optimal time of delivery. Journal of Perinatology.  2006; 26, 392-402.
  • Antepartum Fetal Surveillance.  (2000). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 9. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.  Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 68(2): 175-185.
  • Spong, C.Y., Mercer, B.M., D’Alton, M., Kilpatrick, S., Blackwell, S., & Saade, G.  Timing of indicated late-preterm and early-term birthObstetrics & Gynecology.  2011; 118(2): 323-333.
  • LeRay, C., Lacerte, M., Iglesias, M.H., Audibert, F., & Morin, L.  Routine third trimester ultrasound: what is the evidence?  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Canada.  2008; 30(2): 118-122.
  • Barss, V.A., Frigoletto, F.D., & Diamond, F.  Stillbirth after nonstress testingObstetrics & Gynecology.  1985; 65(4): 541-544.
  • Iacovella, C., Franchi, M., Egbor, M., Bhide, A., & Thilaganathan, B.  Relationship of first-trimester uterine artery Doppler to late stillbirthPrenatal Diagnosis.  2012; 32, 557-561.
  • Singh, T., Leslie, K., Bhide, A., D’Antonio, F., & Thilaganathan, B.  Role of second-trimester uterine artery Doppler in assessing stillbirth riskObstetrics & Gynecology.  2012; 119(2): 256-261.
  • Rosenstein, M.G., Cheng, Y.W., Snowden, J.M., Nicholson, J.M., & Caughey, A.B.  Risk of stillbirth and infant death stratified by gestational age.  Obstetrics & Gynecology.  2012; 120(1): 76-82.


  • Silver, R. Varner, M.W., Reddy, U., Goldenberg, R., Pinar, H., Conway, D., Bukowski, R., Carpenter, M., Hogue, C., Willinger, M., Dudley, D., Saade, G., & Stoll, B.  Work-up of stillbirth: a review of the evidence. AJOG. 2007. Doi: 10-.1016/j.ajog.2006.11.041.
  • Heazell, A., McLaughlin, M., Schmidt, E., Cox, P., Flenady, V., Khong, T., Downe, S. A difficult conversation? The views and experiences of parents and professionals on the consent process for perinatal postmortem after stillbirth. BJOG 2012. 119: 987-997.
  • Timmer, A., van der Meer, J., Ravise, J.M., Veeger, N.J.G.M., & Holm, J.P.  Evaluation of 1025 fetal deaths: proposed diagnostic workupAm J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 206:53.e1-12.
  • Horey, D., Flenady, ., Conway, L., McLeod, E., & Khong, T.Y. Decision influences and aftermath: parents, stillbirth and autopsyHealth Expectations.  Doi: 10.1111/j.1369-7625-2012.00782.x.
  • Dudley, D.J., Goldenberg, R>, Conway, D., Silver, R., Saade, G.R., Varner, M.W., Pinar, H., Coustan, D., Bukowski, R., Stoll, B., Koch, M.A., Parker, C.B., & Reddy, U.M. A new system for determining the causes of stillbirth. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010; 116(2): 254-260.
  • ACOG.  Evaluation of stillbirths and neonatal deathsObstetrics & Gynecology.  2007; 110(4): 963-966.
  • Bove, K.E. and the Autopsy Committee of the College of American Pathologists. Practice guidelines for autopsy pathologyArch Pathol Lab Med.  1997; 121: 368-376.
  • Michalski, S.T., Porter, J., & Pauli, R.M.  Costs and consequences of comprehensive stillbirth assessment..  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  2002; 186(5): 1027-1034.


  • Gold, K.J., Kuznia, A.L., & Hayward, R.A. How physicians cope with stillbirth or neonatal death. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 112(1): 29-34.
  • Carter, B.S. Neonatal and infant death: what bereaved parents can teach us. Journal of Perinatology. 2007; 27: 467-468.
  • Gold, K.J. Navigating care after a baby dies: a systematic review of parents experiences with health providers. Journal of Perinatology. 2007; 27: 230-237.
  • Gold, K.J., Sen, A., & Hayward, R.A. Marriage and cohabitation outcomes after pregnancy loss. Pediatrics. 2010; online:
  • Cacciatore, J. The unique experiences of women and their families after the death of a baby. Social Work in Health Care. 2010; 49(2): 134-148.
  • O’Leary, J., Warland, J., & Parker, L. Bereaved parents’ perception of the grandparents’ reactions to perinatal loss and the pregnancy that follows. Journal of Family Nursing. 2011; 17(3): 330-356.
  • Seeing and Holding Statement
  • Farrow, V.A., Goldenberg, R.L., Fretts, R., & Schulkin, J.  Psychological impact of stillbirths on obstetriciansJournal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine.  2012; doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.746953.
  • O’Leary, J. and Warland, J.  Intentional parenting of children born after a perinatal lossTaylor & Francis Online.  2011.  Doi: 10.1080/15325024.2011.595297.
  • Van Dinter, M.C. and Graves, L.  Managing adverse birth outcomes: helping parents and families copeAmerican Family Physician.  2012; 85(9): 900-904.


  • Wisborg, K., Ingerslev, H.J., & Henriksen, T.B.  IVF and stillbirth: a prospective follow-up studyHuman Reproduction. 2010. 25 (5); 1312-1316.
  • Auger, N., Delezire, P., Harper, S., & Platt, R.W. Maternal education and stillbirth: Estimating gestational-age-specific and cause-specific associationsEpidemiology.  2012; 23(2): 247-254.
  • Coletta, J., & Simpson, L.L. Maternal medical disease and stillbirth. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 53(3): 607-616.
  • Caughey, A.B.,  Musci, T.J. Complication of term pregnancies beyond 37 weeks of gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 103(1): 57-62.
  • Stephansson, O., Kieler, H., Haglund, B., Artama, M., Engeland, A., Furu, K., Gissler, M., Norgaard, M., Nielsen, R.B., Zoega, H., & Valdimarsdottir, U.  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth and infant mortality.  JAMA.  2013; 309(1): 48-54.
  • SANDS: What Needs To Be Done
  • O’Leary, C., Jacoby, P., D’Antoine, H., Bartu, A., & Bower, C.  Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and increased risk of stillbirthBJOG. 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03333.x.
  • Werner, E.F., & Lockwood, C.J.  Thrombophilias and stillbirthClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

Permanent link to this article:

%d bloggers like this: